PERSAINGAN DALAM PASAR BEBAS

Ξ December 12th, 2011 | → | ∇ ULASAN TOPIK PENGANTAR BISNIS |

Pasar global yang dinamis

Mengimpor adalah membeli produk dari Negara lain. Mengekspor adalh menjual produk ke Negara lain

Mengapa harus berdagang dengan Negara lain

Perdagangan bebas adalah perpindahan barang dan jasa diantara Negara-negara tanpa rintangan politik atau ekonomi

v Teori keunggulan komparatif dan absolute

Teori keunggulan komparatif adalah teori yang menyatakan bahwa sebuah Negara harus menjual produk yang dapat diproduksinya secara paling efektif dan efisien kepada Negara lain, dan membeli dari Negara lain produk yang tidak dapat diproduksinya dengan efektivitas dan efeisiensi yang sama

Teori keunggulan absolute adalah keunggulan yang timbul ketika sebuah Negara mempunyai monopilo dalam memproduksi suatu prosuk tertentu atau mampu memproduksinya secara lebih efisien dibandingkan Negara lain

Terlibat dalam perdagangan global

v Mengimpor barang dan jasa

v Mengekspor barang dan jasa

v Mengukur perdagangan global

Neraca perdagangan adalah total nilai ekspor sebuah Negara dibandingkan dengan impornya yang diukur selama periode tertentu. Defisit perdagangan adalah neraca perdagangan yang tidak menguntungkan, terjadi ketika nilai impor sebuah Negara melampaui nilai ekspornya

Neraca pembayaran adalah neraca pembayaran yang menguntungkan ; perbedaan antara uang yang masuk ke dalam sebuah Negara dan uang yang keluar dari sebuah Negara dari faktor-faktor lainnya, seperti pariwisata, bantuan asing, pengeluaran militer, dan investasi asing. Tujuannya adalah untuk selalu membuat lebih banyak uang mengalir masuk ke dalam sebuah Negara dibandingkan yang keluar dari sebuah Negara tersebut

Dumping adalah praktik menjual produk di Negara asing pada harga yang lebih rendah dibandingkan yang ditetapkan di Negara produsen

Strategi untuk menjangkau pasar global

v Pemberian lisensi

Melisensikan yaitu sebuah strategi global dimana sebuah perusahaan mengizinkan sebuah perusahaan asing untuk memproduksi produknya dengan imbalan sejumlah biaya

v Mengekspor

v Waralaba

Pemberian waralaba adalah sebuah perjanjian dimana seseorang dengan ide bagus untuk menjual hak untuk menggunakan nama bisnis tersebut dan menjual produk atau jasa kepada orang lain di suatu territorial tertentu dalam cara tertentu

v Melakukan manufaktor kontrak

v Ventura bersama aliansi strategis internasional

Adalah hubungan rekanan dimana dua perusahaan atau lebih dari Negara yang bergabung untuk melakukan sebuah proyek besar. Manfaatnya yaitu :

a. Membagi teknologi dan risiko

b. Membagi keahlian pemasaran dan manajemen

c. Seringkali tidak diijinkan untuk memasuki pasar kecuali barang-barangnya diproduksi decara lokal

Aliansi strategis adalah hubungan rekanan jangka panjang antara dua perusahaan atau lebih yang dibentuk untuk membantu ssetiap perusahaan membangun keunggulan pasar kompetitif

v Investasi asing langsung

Adalah pembelian property dan bisnis permanen di Negara asing, bentuk paling umum dari investasi asing langsung adalah cabang asing. Cabang asing adalah perusahaan yang dimiliki di sebuah Negara asing oleh perusahaan asing, seperti sebuah perusahaan domestic, dengan prodiksi, distribusi, promosi, penetapan harga, dan fungsi bisnis lainnya dibawah kendali dari manajemen cabang asingnya. Keuntungan utama dari sebuah cabang adalah bahwa perusahaan tersebut mempertahankan kendali menyeluruh atas semua teknologi atau keahlian yang dimilikinya. Kekurangan utama dari sebuah cabang adalah perusahaan induk menaruh dana dan teknologi dalam jumlah besar diluar perbatasan asing

Korporasi multinasional adalah sebuah organisasi manufaktur dan memasarkan produk dibanyak Negara berbeda dan mempunyai kepemilikan saham internasional dan manajemen multinasional

Kekuatan yang mempengaruhi perdagangan dalam pasar global

v Kekuatan sosiokultural

v Kekuatan ekonomi dan finansial

Nilai tukar adalah nilai mata uang suatu Negara secara relative terhadap mata uang Negara lain. Devaluasi adalah tindakan menurunkan nilai mata uang suatu Negara secara relative terhadap mata uang lain. Tukar dagang adalah bentuk kompleks dari barter yang melibatkan beberapa negara di dalamnya, masin-masing barang untuk barang dan jasa untuk jasa

v Kekuatan hukum dan regulasi

v Kekuatan fisik dan lingkungan

Proteksionisme perdagangan

Adalah penggunaan regulasi pemerintah untuk membatasi impor barang dan jasa. Tarif adalah pajak yang dikenakan pada barang impor, dimaksudkan untuk menyelamatkan lapangan pekerjaan bagi pekerja domestik dan menjaga agar industri tidak tutup karena persaingan asing. Tarif pajak impor adalah tarif yang dirancang untuk menaikkan harga retail produk impor, sehingga harga barang domestic menjadi lebih kompetitif. Tarif pendapatan yaitu tarif yang dirancang untuk mengumpulkan uang untuk pemerintah, biasanya digunakan oleh Negara berkembang untuk membantu industri yang baru berdiri untuk bersaing dalam pasar global

Kuota impor adalah pembatasan jumlah produk dalam kategori tertentu yang dapat diimpor sebuah Negara. Tujuannya adalah untuk melindungi perusahaan AS dengan maksud untuk melindungi pekerjaan. Embargo adalah pelarangan sepenuhnya atas impor atau ekspor produk tertentu atau penghentian semua perdagangan dengan Negara tertentu

v World Trade Organization (WTO)

Adalah organisai internasional yang menggantikan GATT yang bertanggung jawab untuk menengahi perselisihan dagang antarnegara

General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) adalah sebuah perjanjian pada tahun 1948 yang menetapkan sebuah forum internasional untuk menegosiasikan pengurangan pembatasan perdagangan secara dalam

v Pasar bersama

Adalah kelompok regional Negara-negara yang mempunyai tarif eksternal sama, tanpa tarif internal, dan koordinasi hukum untuk memfasilitasi pertukaran antarnegara anggota

v Perjanjian perdagangan bebas Amerika Utara dengan Amerika Tengah

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) adalah perjanjian yang menciptakan area perdagangan bebas antara Amerika Serikat, Kanada, dan Meksiko. Tujuannya adalah :

a. Menghapuskan rintangan perdagangan dan memfasilitasi pergerakan barang dan jasa lintas batas ketiga Negara

b. Meningkatkan kondisi persaingan yang adil dari are paerdagangan bebas ini

c. Meningkatkan kesempatan investasi dalam teritorial ketiga Negara

d. Memberikan perlindungan dan penegakan hak atas kekayaan intelektual secara efektif dalam masing-masing territorial Negara

e. Mengadakan kerangka kerja untuk kooperasi dagang regional lebih jauh

f. Memperbaiki kondisi kerja di Amerika Utara

v Masa depan perdagan global

v Tantangan pengontrakan keluar negeri

Globalisasi dan masa depan Anda

 

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